Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cells

Very serious health effects are associated with exposure to PBDEs, but toxicity depends on the compound and the amount that one is exposed to. PBDEs are chemically similar to PCBs and, not surprisingly, they show similar health effects as well ( #Sightline ). They are biomagnified toxic compounds, meaning they accumulate within food chains. Laboratory studies on mice have shown them to be neurotoxic chemicals, neurobehavioral and developmental toxicant s, and Carcinogens . They have noticeable affects on the thyroid and liver ( #Schmidt, 2003 , #Birnbaum, 2004 , and #ATSDR, PBBs and PBDEs ) and they impair learning, memory, sexual development, and behavior ( #Sightline ). Additionally, PBDEs and PCBs - still present in the environment - can "interact and enhance neurobehavioral defects when the exposure occurs during a critical stage of neonatal brain development" ( #Eriksson et al, 2006 ).

The aforementioned studies strongly suggest that exposure to PBDEs causes adverse neurobehavioral effects, in particular during early neurodevelopment. With respect to neonatal exposure, a study in which BDE-99 was administered on PND3, PND10, or PND19 ( Eriksson et al. 2002 ) revealed that brain development in mice is most sensitive to exposure to PBDEs in the first 2 weeks after birth. In rats and mice, rapid growth of the brain, as well as synaptogenesis and myelination, occurs within these 2 weeks, whereas in humans these processes start in the last trimester of pregnancy and extend into early childhood (for reviews, see Dobbing and Sands 1979 ; Rice and Barone 2000 ; Tau and Peterson 2010 ).

In 1973, several thousand pounds of FireMaster BP-6 were accidentally mixed with livestock feed that was distributed to farms in Michigan , United States. [11] Some million chickens , 30,000 cattle , 5,900 pigs , and 1,470 sheep then consumed this feed, became contaminated with PBBs and the carcasses were disposed of in landfill sites throughout the state. [12] These events were portrayed in the 1981 documentary Cattlegate by Jeff Jackson, the true-fiction film Bitter Harvest starring Ron Howard , and in the book The Poisoning of Michigan by Joyce Egginton. A 1978 episode of Lou Grant ("Slaughter") portrays a similar, but fictionalized account. One year elapsed before the animals were culled. [11] A study was undertaken on 4,545 people to determine the effects of PBBs on human beings . These include three exposure groups – all people who lived on the quarantined farms, people who received food from these farms and workers (and their families) engaged in PBB manufacture – as well as 725 people with low-level PBB exposure.

In the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (Fourth Report) , CDC scientists measured ten different PBDEs in the blood serum (the clear portion of blood) of at least 1,985 participants aged 12 years and older who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2003–2004. In addition, BB-153, which is one of the PBBs, was measured in 2,032 participants aged 12 years and older. By measuring PBDEs and PBBs in blood serum scientists can estimate the amounts of these chemicals that have entered people's bodies.

Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cells

effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cells

In the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (Fourth Report) , CDC scientists measured ten different PBDEs in the blood serum (the clear portion of blood) of at least 1,985 participants aged 12 years and older who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2003–2004. In addition, BB-153, which is one of the PBBs, was measured in 2,032 participants aged 12 years and older. By measuring PBDEs and PBBs in blood serum scientists can estimate the amounts of these chemicals that have entered people's bodies.

Media:

effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cellseffects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cellseffects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cellseffects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cellseffects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on steroidogenesis in rat leydig cells

http://buy-steroids.org