More than a dozen modern conventions exist for numbering the sizes of sewing machine needles, though only two remain in common use: the American (established and propagated by Singer ) and the European (also called the "number metric" or "NM"). The European designation, established in 1942, is considered the uniform fixed size and corresponds to the diameter of the needle in hundredths of a millimeter at a non-reinforced point above the scarf. The following chart gives a comparison of the two systems. In both cases, a larger number corresponds to a larger, heavier needle. Most sewing machine needles will have packaging that gives both numbers in its size description— that is, the size numbers 100 and 16 always occur together (as either 100/16 or 16/100). The order of these numbers has no significance, and the length of all sewing machine needles has been standardized and does not require a separate code.